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« Les collectivités locales ont une autonomie limitée » - Cameroon-Tribune - Le Nouveau Cameroun

« Les collectivités locales ont une autonomie limitée » – Cameroon-Tribune

« Les collectivités locales ont une autonomie limitée » – <b>Cameroon</b>-Tribune

« Les collectivités locales ont une autonomie limitée »

Dr Hervé Nicanor Ondoua, économiste du territoire et de la décentralisation, analyste des politiques économiques au Nkafu Policy Institute.

Lundi dernier, le ministre de la Décentralisation et du Développement local (Minddevel) a rappelé à l’ordre, des maires de ville et d’arrondissement qui se livrent à la collecte de la redevance publicitaire. Activité « non conforme » selon lui, au regard des textes qui régissent ce secteur. Qu’est-ce qui est à l’origine d’un tel dysfonctionnement ?
Un tel dysfonctionnement peut être issu de deux problèmes majeurs. D’abord la mauvaise application des lois. En effet, la loi 2006/018 du 29 décembre 2006 régissant la publicité au Cameroun dans son chapitre II présente les conditions particulières à l’affichage publicitaire et l’article 19 de cette loi en son alinéa 2 stipule que « Les règles de compétence en matière de gestion et d’exploitation des domaines public et privé ou de leurs emprises, où se déploie l’affichage publicitaire sont celles fixées par les lois et règlements applicables au régime domanial au Cameroun ». Cependant les garants du régime domanial sont les collectivités territoriales décentralisées (CTD), du moins au niveau local, et par le cadastre pour ce qui est du global et donc de l’administration centrale le cas échéant. Les CTD peuvent donc prélever un impôt sur la publicité étant donné qu’elles sont responsables de l’aménagement et de l’exploitation de la voirie primaire et secondaire. Le deuxième problème est le chevauchement des pouvoirs dans la prise de décision. En fait, on a d’un côté le pouvoir central, avec les différents ministères qui ordonnent et de l’autre, le pouvoir local avec les CTD qui sont censées être autonomes d’après la loi n°2019/024 du 24 Décembre 2019 portant Code général des CTD. De ce fait, ces entités sont des personnes morales de droit public. Elles jouissent de l’autonomie administrative et financière pour la gestion des intérêts régionaux et locaux. Elles doivent donc s’administrer librement par des conseils élus et dans les conditions fixées par la loi.

Comment peut-on comprendre l’entêtement de ces autorités municipales, si tant est que ce n’est pas la première fois qu’elles sont interpellées sur ce sujet ?
Les autorités municipales sont dans leur droit. D’où leur entêtement. La déclaration conjointe des maires des villes de Douala et de Yaoundé, sur l’affichage publicitaire est suffisamment claire. L’autonomie financière confère aux communes et aux régions, un pouvoir de décision en matière financière, ainsi qu’une certaine autonomie dans la gestion des ressources dont elles disposent. Parmi ces ressources se trouvent les domaines de l’Etat qui sont dans la circonscription administrée par un maire. Il peut donc prélever un impôt pour le développement de sa localité. Rappelons que, l’autonomie financière devrait permettre aux CTD de se développer, en utilisant leurs propres ressources pour améliorer les conditions de vie de leurs populations. Ce litige est un exemple de limite de l’autonomie des CTD qui vient montrer qu’au Cameroun, les collectivités locales ont peu d’autonomie financière, car elles disposent d’une marge de manœuvre limitée pour percevoir les recettes fiscales. Ce droit est exclusivement réservé à l’Etat. C’est pourquoi les ressources des CTD proviennent principalement du partage des impôts de l’Etat, du produit des impôts locaux dont le régime est fixé par le législateur, ou des impôts loc…

Cet article a été écrit et publié en premier dans la rubrique Décentralisation de ce média camerounais de référence

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